3 Francisc Deak, Tratat de drept succesoral, Second edition, updated and completed Volumul V. Succesiuni (Bucharest: C.H. Beck Publishing House, ). Succesiuni şi testamente. Dan Chirică. Tratat de drept succesoral – Ediţia a II-a actualizată şi completată. Francisc Deak. Moştenirea şi devoluţiunea ei în dreptul . Partea speciala, Contracte si succesiuni, editia 2, Editura All Beck, Bucuresti, , p] 3) With Onerous Title Both parties follow Francisc Deak, op. cit., p. 10].
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Mircea Neagoe, Transilvania University of Brasov. Flavius Baias, University of Bucharest. Vanca, University “1 Decembrie ” of Alba Iulia. Censorship is a topic that is present in some studies but mostly related to communism, the period after Second World War or contemporarily events.
I choose correspondence as first step in analyses censorship during First World War, because it was the most direct way of communication between home and the front, between beloved ones, and censorship had contaminated it. Trough letters, both soldiers and those from home, were supposed to talk to each other about their problems, feelings, sadness or joy, but my conclusion was that in fact none of this had happened.
Censorship is a negative form of propaganda and is always an instrument used by authorities. Wartime censorship was, and still is currently used to prevent the enemy to find out information about military operations, but also to prevent its own soldiers and citizens to find out news that could demoralize them. The morale is very important both for the army and the entire population to achieve victory.
Civil censorship turned into military censorship and thus became much tougher than before. On 14 July was introduced censorship. Newspapers were forbidden to publish any information about the war and even less about the preparations which were made in the army.
Also now have been empowered the state institutions Police and Prefecture, with control of external postal correspondence. This service has jurisdiction in the territory of the whole Empire. Censorship helped for this purpose too.
Press, letters and any information reached those who were fighting on the front was previously censured, to stop transmitting any demoralizing information which could lead to possible desertions or other actions contrary to the mission that soldiers had. Since 17 Septemberwas allowed to send or receive parcels from Austria and from 1 October it was permitted the exchange of letters with Germany. Thomas Nelson and Sons, ; Marian Petcu Bucharest Comunicare.
Thousand Years in Europe, ed. Korona, ; As regards external traffic were allowed parcels to Romania, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Germany etc. These conditions were also valid for parcels, but in this case it was not allowed to contain frncisc entry or any written statement and they were closing in the front of the postal office employees, like letters did.
Their running time varied, some have worked throughout the war and others were active in the shorter term. Regarding the periods of operation of these francisv in Transylvania, we have the following information: Information about the censorship office reappears in November then it has probably resumed and remained in operation until September Since that moment, police were empowered with searches including editorial and cinemas, have the right to “censor the press and any publications, [having the right to prevent any newspaper or publication, or only occurrence of certain news or articles”], and have the right to verify the correspondence, both the domestic and foreign, and have a duty to keep those telegrams or letters that they will see unfit to reach succfsiuni recipient.
From July to October postal censorship was carried out by police, after this period the police continued to censor the correspondence, random, especially people residing sucdesiuni boarding or considered suspect under police surveillance. Transylvanian francidc dealt with censorship especially in the period Police censorship had carried out a high level of efficacy.
Medro, ; In this case, there are several steps. The first began in October lasted until the end of February and was more a period of adjustment.
The local military units were busy organizing military postal censorship office, equipping them with what was necessary and selection of military personnel, auditors etc.
With the ending of this period, until the beginning of Novemberthe instructions related to censorship were very strict. However, prior censorship of newspapers remained until November Finally, in Budapest it was censored correspondence sent from the central areas of Hungary in Romania and arrived in Banat and Transylvania from Western European countries.
On November 15 same year, it was established that all the correspondence with nonGerman countries to be censored in four centers: Vienna, Teschen, Budapest and Feldkirch; packages were controlled at Vienna, Bodenbach, and Feldkirch; and for censoring telegrams were established 12 committees throughout the empire, of which the Banat and Transylvania responsible for was located in Budapest. Regarding the organization of the Censoring offices, these are the main information we have.
What kind of information they cut out from correspondence or media, we do not know.
We zuccesiuni only some letters that get to their recipient and sucfesiuni few who were stopped by the Censoring Commissions to get to their final destination. If we talk about the ones that were totally censored, meaning seized, then we can notice a predominating of the information from war prisoners, mainly from Russia and Italy. These men were writing about their situation in the camps they were detained. Others were saying that are prisoners in Italy and they were healthy and very well there.
Others were talking about the fact that they were put to work but still are pretty well and do not lack anything. People talk, and in those times war and loved ones were the main subjects they talked about. And if this kind of information spread among soldiers, they might choose to desert. I think, all those who were fighting unwillingly were waiting for any reason to desert and this could be one. Because authorities were afraid not to increase the number of desertions, they tried to stop any way of getting any information that could give the idea of a better life in prisoner camps than tranches.
There are some letters from families who were totally censored, meaning they were stopped to get to the destination. Usually those talk about how succesiunu is life at home. This deam might be considered dangerous by the censors because it may be understood as a subtle request of coming home.
If those who are in tranches find out that their wife, children, parents are having a difficult deeak, a lot of problems etc.
So, probably this could be a good enough reason to censor those letters. We have a letter in which the wife is complaining about how her father-in-law was asking her to pay for the help he give it to her with the household, and their son did not dewk to her, doing only what he likes.
There are a few letters that did pass through censorship but slipped unnoticed, I think. We know only that they were important, those franxisc were considered a threat to the authorities, otherwise why had to be censored? Then there are the letters that never got to their destination.
In this case, we have tow situations. First, we have the letters that were censored; a couple dea, them still exist, kept in archives, as I mentioned a few earlier, but not all. And then are the ones that were lost for different reasons. Then we have the letters that did get to their addresses and transmitted deai message. Mostly the messages were wrapped in short positive personal information. This affirmation is sustained by the letters I have seen till now.
Even people living in the same house usually do not use exactly the same type of words. I think that maybe in these cases the writers were told what to write by their superiors or succesikni, people who had a great influence on them, or there was a man who wrote the letters for most of his colleagues.
When it come to the letters send from home, it might be the influence of the priests or the schoolteacher. Information transmitted by this letters is related to the household, of course, written by the families of those who were left to war.
Usually, they inform the householder how things were going in his absence. Some of them talk about how they mowing the rye or not mowing the wheat and about how they handle with the cattle. Related to this kind of letters, we can say that either is fake, meaning not telling the truth, either is real and those people are having a nice life. Succesuini these cases, there was no need for the censors to apply their filter on the letters.
In conclusion, I crancisc that censorship in First World War in Transylvania was reak enough franisc create a situation of misinformed people regarding their beloved ones. Correspondence exchanged during this period was under a strict surveillance of the authorities through their Censorship Commissions and the authorized bodies.
This is just a small part of a research in progress, which intends to find out more about what have mean censorship in First World War in Transylvania. I hope this scrap of research made you became more interested in the subject.
The Battle for Hearts and Minds. Thomas Nelson and Sons,